Black/African Americana and Hispanic/Latinab women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV, compared with women of other races/ethnicity. Of the total estimated number of womenc living with diagnosed HIV at the end of 2013, 61% (137,504) were African American, 17% (39,177) were white, and 17% (38,664) were Hispanics/Latinas.
- Around 1 in 4 people living with HIV in the United States are women.
- Most new HIV diagnoses in women are attributed to heterosexual sex.
- Between 2005 and 2014, the number of new HIV diagnoses among women declined 40%.
- The greater number of people living with HIV (prevalence) in African American and Hispanic/Latino communities and the fact that people tend to have sex with partners of the same race/ethnicity mean that women from these communities face a greater risk of HIV infection with each new sexual encounter.
- Some women may be unaware of their male partner’s risk factors for HIV (such as injection drug use or having sex with men) and may not use condoms.
- Assuming no prevention methods (such as condoms or medicines to prevent HIV) are used, the risk of getting HIV during vaginal sex is higher for women than it is for men. Anal sex is riskier for getting HIV than vaginal sex, and the risk is much greater for the receptive partner than for the insertive partner in anal sex. In a behavioral survey of heterosexual women at increased risk of HIV infection, 25% of HIV-negative women reported having anal sex without a condom in the previous year.
- Some sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and syphilis, greatly increase the likelihood of getting or spreading HIV.
- Women who have been sexually abused may be more likely than women with no abuse history to engage in sexual behaviors like exchanging sex for drugs, having multiple partners, or having sex without a condom.
AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth, & Families
Mother to Child Transmission Resources (AIDS Education and Training Centers)
Black Women and HIV/AIDS (National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors)
Women, Children, and HIV (University of California, San Francisco)
Cervical Cancer and HIV (SmartGlobalHealth.org)
CDC Resource Library
The Center for Young Women's Development (CYWD)
The Center for Young Women's Development (CYWD) is one of the first non-profits in the United States run and led entirely by young women.
- We begin and end with the whole young woman.
- Her need for political education and legal support, as well as therapy and other health and wellness services;
- Her need for employment, as well as an opportunity to resume her education;
- Her need for a safe place to live, as well as peers who understand her crises and with whom she can build positive relations and true sisterhood.
We begin and end with the whole young woman. Her need for political education and legal support, as well as therapy and other health and wellness services; Her need for employment, as well as an opportunity to resume her education; Her need for a safe place to live, as well as peers who understand her crises and with whom she can build positive relations and true sisterhood.
The female condom:
The female condom, like the male condom, is a barrier contraceptive made of latex or polyurethane. The condom has a ring on each end. The ring that is placed inside the vagina fits over the cervix, while the other ring, which is open, rests outside of the vagina and covers the vulva. The female condom is sold over-the-counter.
The Female Health Company - The Female Health Company is the only developer and manufacturer of the female condom. Their website provides information regarding the product, strategic introduction of the female condom, resources and other information.
The FC2 female condom, the second generation female condom, is now available in the United States. The FC2 female condom is a strong, thin, nitrile sheath that is about 6.5 inches long (about the same length as a male condom) with a flexible "ring" at each end. It is inserted into the vagina prior to sexual intercourse and provides protection against both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV. The inner ring aids insertion and helps keep the female condom in place during intercourse while the softer outer ring remains outside the vagina.
- Provides both men and women with an additional choice to prevent unintended pregnancies and protect themselves from STDs including HIV.
- Is the only female-initiated barrier method alternative to the male condom.
- Forms a barrier between the penis and the vagina, cervix and external genitalia, thereby providing additional protection.
- Is made from nitrile, a synthetic latex, and causes no allergic reactions and, unlike latex, may be used with both oil and water based lubricants.
- Can be inserted up to 8 hours before intercourse so it will not interrupt sexual spontaneity. It is not dependent on the male erection and does not require immediate withdrawal after ejaculation.
- Conducts/retains heat, so sexual intercourse can feel natural.
- Is not tight or constricting
The female condom is not difficult to use, but it may take practice to become comfortable using it. It is recommended that women practice inserting and removing the female condom, before using it for the first time during sexual intercourse. The female condom should not be used together with a male condom.